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Armed conflict in Afghanistan has created a complex backdrop for multiple human rights abuses. The UN and other organisations have documented sexual violence and torture of women, girls, boys and men. In addition, sexual abuse of boys in an abusive practice called ‘bacha bazi’, continues to be reported. The country’s precarious security climate makes both male and female children vulnerable to different forms of sexual and gender based violence. Young men and boys fleeing the country have suffered sexual violence in transit and in host countries.